Once you have created and populated a Podcast, you probably want to add some episodes to it. To add episodes to a feed, you need to create new Episode objects and append them to the list of episodes in the Podcast. That is pretty straight-forward:

from pod2gen import Podcast, Episode
# Create the podcast (see the previous section)
p = Podcast()
# Create new episode
my_episode = Episode()
# Add it to the podcast

There is a convenience method called Podcast.add_episode() which optionally creates a new instance of Episode, adds it to the podcast and returns it, allowing you to assign it to a variable:

from pod2gen import Podcast
p = Podcast()
my_episode = p.add_episode()

If you prefer to use the constructor, there’s nothing wrong with that:

from pod2gen import Podcast, Episode
p = Podcast()
my_episode = p.add_episode(Episode())

The advantage of using the latter form is that you can pass data to the constructor.

Filling with data

There is only one rule for episodes: they must have either a title or a summary, or both. Additionally, you can opt to have a long summary, as well as a short subtitle:

my_episode.title = "S01E10: The Best Example of them All"
my_episode.subtitle = "We found the greatest example!"
my_episode.summary = "In this week's episode, we have found the " + \
                     "<i>greatest</i> example of them all."
my_episode.long_summary = "In this week's episode, we went out on a " + \
    "search to find the <i>greatest</i> example of them " + \
    "all. <br/>Today's intro music: " + \
    "<a href='https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQw4w9WgXcQ'>Example Song</a>"

Read more:

Enclosing media

Of course, this isn’t much of a podcast if we don’t have any media attached to it!

from datetime import timedelta
from pod2gen import Media
my_episode.media = Media("http://example.com/podcast/s01e10.mp3",
                         type="audio/mpeg",  # Optional, can be determined
                                             # from the url
                         duration=timedelta(hours=1, minutes=2, seconds=36)

The media’s attributes (and the arguments to the constructor) are:




The URL at which this media file is accessible.


The size of the media file as bytes, given either as int or a str which will be parsed.


The media file’s MIME type.


How long the media file lasts, given as a datetime.timedelta

You can leave out some of these:


Effect if left out




Can be 0, but do so only if you cannot determine its size (for example if it’s a stream).


Can be left out if the URL has a recognized file extensions. In that case, the type will be determined from the URL’s file extension.


Can be left out since it is optional. It will stay as None.


Remember to encode special characters in your URLs! For example, say you have a file named library-pod-#023-future.mp3, which you host at http://podcast.example.org/episodes. You might try to use the URL http://podcast.example.org/episodes/library-pod-#023-future.mp3. This, however, will not work, since the hash (#) has a special meaning in URLs. Instead, you should use urllib.parse.quote(). The correct URL would then become http://podcast.example.org/episodes/library-pod-%23023-future.mp3. This warning applies to all properties and attributes of pod2gen objects containing urls and links.

Populating size and type from server

By using the special factory Media.create_from_server_response you can gather missing information by asking the server at which the file is hosted:

my_episode.media = Media.create_from_server_response(
                       duration=timedelta(hours=1, minutes=2, seconds=36)

Here’s the effect of leaving out the fields:


Effect if left out




Will be populated using the Content-Length header.


Will be populated using the Content-Type header.


Will not be populated by data from the server; will stay None.

Populating duration from server

Determining duration requires that the media file is downloaded to the local machine, and is therefore not done unless you specifically ask for it. If you don’t have the media file locally, you can populate the duration field by using Media.fetch_duration():


If you do happen to have the media file in your file system, you can use it to populate the duration attribute by calling Media.populate_duration_from():

filename = "/home/example/Music/podcast/s01e10.mp3"


Even though you technically can have file names which don’t end in their actual file extension, iTunes will use the file extension to determine what type of file it is, without even asking the server. You must therefore make sure your media files have the correct file extension.

If you don’t care about compatibility with iTunes, you can provide the MIME type yourself to fix any errors you receive about this.

This also applies to the tool used to determine a file’s duration, which uses the file’s file extension to determine its type.

Read more about:

  • media (the attribute)

  • Media (the class which you use as value)

Alternate enclosing media

Alternate enclosing media are meant to provide different versions of, or companion media to the main Episode.media object. An alternate enclosing media could be an audio only version of a video podcast to allow apps to switch back and forth between audio/video, lower (or higher) bitrate versions for bandwidth constrained areas, alternative codecs for different device platforms, alternate URI schemes and download types such as IPFS or WebTorrent, commentary tracks or supporting source clips, etc…

from pod2gen import AlternateMedia
    am = AlternateMedia(
        rel="Off stage",


The AlternateMedia’s attributes (and the arguments to the constructor) are:




The media file’s MIME type.


The length of the file in bytes as int.


The Encoding bitrate of media asset as float.


Height of the media asset for video formats as int.


An IETF language tag (BCP 47) code identifying the language of this media.


A human-readable string identifying the name of the media asset.


A label to group several media objects.


An RFC 6381 string specifying the codecs available in this media.


bool specifying whether or not the given media is the same as the one from the enclosure element and should be the preferred media element.


The type of method of verifying integrity of the media "sri" or "pgp-signature".


The value of the media signature depenting on the selected encryption.

Only type and length are required, all other fields are optional and will be skipped if unspecified while generating the corresponding XML tags.

Alternatively, it is possible to create a minimal AlternateMedia with the required constructor parameters and populate the optional fields later on.:

from pod2gen import AlternateMedia

# Creating an AlternateMedia object with just a type and a length
am = AlternateMedia("audio/mp4", 43200000)

# Editing fields
am.bitrate = 128000
am.height = 1080
am.lang = "en-US"
am.title = "Standard"
am.rel = "Off stage"
am.codecs = "mp4a.40.2"
am.default = False
am.encryption = "sri"
am.signature = "sha384-ExVqijgYHm15PqQqdXfW95x+Rs6C+d6E/ICxyQOeFevnxNLR/wtJNrNYTjIysUBo"

An episode can have multiple alternative media groups. Each group is represented by an AlternateMedia that contains several sources of the same media file. Each AlternateMedia is stored in Episode.alternate_media_list and can be tagged using the rel property. For example, an episode can have two AlternateMedia items, one representing the audio only format of the episode with various sources and the other representing the video format of the episode with various alternate sources to the main media file of the episode.:

from pod2gen import AlternateMedia
videos = AlternateMedia("video/x-msvideo", 432000000, rel="video format")
audios = AlternateMedia(""audio/mp4, 432000000, rel="audio format")

Alternate enclosure sources

AlternateMedia is just the container of various sources of the same file. It must contain at least one source otherwise no <podcast:alternateEnclosure> tag will be generated. Sources are stored as a dict in AlternateMedia.sources. The key represents the uri where the media file resides while the value is just the contentType of the media file. The contentType is meant to be a string that declares the mime-type of the file. It is useful if the transport mechanism is different than the file being delivered, as is the case with a torrents. Since the contentType is optional, the value of each key/value pair can be None.

# Example of AlternateMedia.sources
sources = {
    "https://example.com/file-0.mp3": None,
    "ipfs://QmdwGqd3d2gFPGeJNLLCshdiPert45fMu84552Y4XHTy4y": None,
    "https://example.com/file-0.torrent": "application/x-bittorrent",

For each source, a <podcast:source> will be generated within the parent <podcast:alternateEnclosure> element.

The recommended way of adding a new source to an AlternateMedia object is using AlternateMedia.add_source(). Editing directly AlternateMedia.sources should be avoided and is against the philosophy of this project which is making sure that all fields and values are properly formatted.

# The contentType is not specified and will be 'None'

# The contentType here is "application/x-bittorrent"
am.add_source("https://example.com/file-0.torrent", "application/x-bittorrent")

Editing the given contentType after adding the source is also possible using AlternateMedia.edit_source_content()

# Setting the contentType from `None` to `"audio/mpeg"`
am.edit_source_content("https://example.com/file-0.mp3", "audio/mpeg",)

# Setting the contentType from `"application/x-bittorrent"` to `None`
am.edit_source_content("https://example.com/file-0.torrent", None)

Since sources are stored as a key/value pair in a dict, it is possible to delete a source using the uri with AlternateMedia.delete_source()


Read more about:


Just like for url, remember to encode special characters in your sources URLs with urllib.parse.quote().

Alternate enclosure integrity

When AlternateMedia.encryption and AlternateMedia.signature are specified, a <podcast:integrity> tag is added to the parent <podcast:alternateEnclosure> element.

Please checkout RSS Namespace Extension for Podcasting for more details about the <podcast:integrity> tag.

Read more about:

Future improvements

Just like it is possible to create a Media from a url address using Media.create_from_server_response(), it should also be possible to create an AlternateMedia object from a list of urls pointing to the same media file. Fetching data from these urls like the length in bytes, the bitrate and other attributes should also be possible using pod2gen.

Also in order to make sure that the AlternateMedia object is correctly populated, checking that all the various sources do point to the same media file will also be implemented.

In order to generate the <podcast:integrity> tag, users will have to select a type of encryption ("sri" or "pgp-signature") and calculates themselves the signature based on the selected encryption. Auto-calculation of encryption based on the urls of the sources will be implemented in future versions.

Identifying the episode

Every episode is identified by a globally unique identifier (GUID). By default, this id is set to be the same as the URL of the media (see above) when the feed is generated. That is, given the example above, the id of my_episode would be http://example.com/podcast/s01e10.mp3.


An episode’s ID should never change. Therefore, if you don’t set id, the media URL must never change either.

Read more about the Episode.id attribute.

Organization of episodes

By default, podcast applications will organize episodes by their publication date, with the most recent episode at top. In addition to this, many publishers number their episodes by including a number in the episode titles. Some also divide their episodes into seasons. Such titles may look like “S02E04 Example title”, to take an example.

Generally, podcast applications can provide a better presentation when the information is structured, rather than mangled together in the episode titles. Apple therefore introduced new ways of specifying season and episode numbers through separate fields in mid 2017. Unfortunately, not all podcast applications have adopted the fields, but hopefully that will improve as more publishers use the new fields.

The season and episode_number attributes are used to set this information:

my_episode.title = "Example title"
my_episode.season = 2
my_episode.episode_number = 4

The episode_number attribute is mandatory for full episodes if the podcast is marked as serial. Otherwise, they are just nice to have.

episode_number and season attributes are also used in the RSS Namespace Extension for Podcasting for generating the tags <podcast:episode> and <podcast:season> in addition to itunes tags.

It is also possible to set an episode_name an a season_name attributes as podcast apps and aggregators are encouraged to show these values instead of the purely numerical episode_number and season:

my_episode.season = 3
my_episode.season_name = "Volume 3
my_episode.episode_number = 4
my_episode.episode_name = "Chapter 4"

Read more:

Episode’s publication date

An episode’s publication date indicates when the episode first went live. It is used to indicate how old the episode is, and a client may say an episode is from “1 hour ago”, “yesterday”, “last week” and so on. You should therefore make sure that it matches the exact time that the episode went live, or else your listeners will get a new episode which appears to have existed for longer than it has.


It is generally a bad idea to use the media file’s modification date as the publication date. If you make your episodes some time in advance, your listeners will suddenly get an “old” episode in their feed!

my_episode.publication_date = datetime.datetime(2016, 5, 18, 10, 0,

Read more about the publication_date attribute.

The Authors and Persons of interest

Normally, the attributes Podcast.authors and Podcast.web_master (if set) are used to determine the authors of an episode. Thus, if all your episodes have the same authors, you should just set it at the podcast level.

If an episode’s list of authors differs from the podcast’s, though, you can override it like this:

my_episode.authors = [Person("Joe Bob")]

You can even have multiple authors:

my_episode.authors = [Person("Joe Bob"), Person("Alice Bob")]

The RSS Namespace Extension for Podcasting has also a <podcast:person> tag definition. Episode.persons is similar to Podcast.persons. It is possible to define authors of the episode using Episode.add_person()

my_episode.add_person(Person("Joe Bob", group="Writing", role="Author"))
my_episode.add_person(Person("Alice Bob"group="Writing", role="Author"))

In general Episode.persons is a list of persons of interest to the episode and can represent other roles than "Author" like "Cover Art Designer", "Technical Director" etc…

director = Person("Slim Beji", group="Audio Production", role="Technical Director")

designer = Person("Frank Drogba", group="Writing", role="Author")

Person.group and Person.role are case insensitive. The full list of available group and role labels is defined by the Podcast Taxonomy Project. Using an unknown group or role or an unknown group/role pairing to the Podcast Taxonomy Project is accepted, however UnknownPersonGroup, UnknownPersonRole and UnknownPersonGroupRoleTuple warnings will be respectively issued.

Read more:

Bonuses and Trailers

Sometimes, you may have some bonus material that did not make it into the published episode, such as a 1-hour interview which was cut down to 10 minutes for the podcast, or funny outtakes. Or, you may want to generate some hype for an upcoming season of a podcast ahead of its first episode.

Bonuses and trailers are added to the podcast the same way regular episodes are added, but with the episode_type attribute set to a different value depending on if it is a bonus or a trailer.

The following constants are used as values of episode_type:



  • Full/regular (default): EPISODE_TYPE_FULL

The constants can be imported from pod2gen. Here is an example:

from pod2gen import Podcast, EPISODE_TYPE_BONUS

# Create the podcast
my_podcast = Podcast()
# Fill in the podcast details
# ...

# Create the ordinary episode
my_episode = my_podcast.add_episode()
my_episode.title = "The history of Acme Industries"
my_episode.season = 1
my_episode.episode_number = 9

# Create the bonus episode associated with the ordinary episode above
my_bonus = my_podcast.add_episode()
my_bonus.title = "Full interview with John Doe about Acme Industries"
my_bonus.episode_type = EPISODE_TYPE_BONUS
my_bonus.season = 1
my_bonus.episode_number = 9
# ...

episode_type combines with season and episode_number to indicate what this is a bonus or trailer for.

  • If you specify an episode_number, optionally with a season number if you divide episodes by season, it will be a bonus or trailer for that episode. You can see this in the example above.

  • If you specify only a season, then it will be a bonus or trailer for that season.

  • If you specify none of those, it will be a bonus or trailer for the podcast itself.

Less used attributes

# Not actually implemented by iTunes; the Podcast's image is used.
my_episode.image = "http://example.com/static/best-example.png"

# Set it to override the Podcast's explicit attribute for this episode only.
my_episode.explicit = False

# Tell iTunes that the enclosed video is closed captioned.
my_episode.is_closed_captioned = False

# Tell iTunes that this episode should be the first episode on the store
# page.
my_episode.position = 1

# Careful! This will hide this episode from the iTunes store page.
my_episode.withhold_from_itunes = True

More details:

Shortcut for filling in data

Instead of assigning those values one at a time, you can assign them all in one go in the constructor – just like you can with Podcast. Just use the attribute name as the keyword:

    <attribute name>=<attribute value>,
    <attribute name>=<attribute value>,

See also the example in the API Documentation.

Podcast and Episode common attributes

Podcast and Episode can share the same attributes like Location, License etc…

When the same attribute is defined for both the podcast and one of its episodes, like Location for example, the episode Episode.location will be prioratized over the podcast Podcast.location when reading the feed.